1: G. Buccellati, November 2002

A Digital Monograph

Seal legends

     The graphics for this section are shown in the direction in which one normally reads cuneiform today. This causes the images to be sideways. It is quite likely that the ancient scribes would not need (or even agree with the opportunity of) such a rotation. But in our context it is meant to emphasize the textual dimension of this section.

     Even though the cuneiform legend is privileged, each seal is labeled according to its iconographic content, where available. The other aspects of the seals (iconography, style, material, etc.) are described in the section on glyptics.

     In each case, a brief descriptive label follows the alpha-numeric label, with reference first to the cuneiform legend, and then to the iconography. Thus in the following label:
     k1 – endan a / attendants with globular object
k1 is the alphanumeric label,
endan a refers to the cuneiform legend, and
attendants with globular object refers to the iconography.

     Included here are both seals and seal impressions, but in each case the graphic insert shows the seal impression. In the case of seals, it is the modern seal impression that is given here. In the case of multiple seal impressions, it is the composite modern drawing.

     The seals are listed in chronological order and within each page by general type, depending on whether they belong to the king, the queen, their courtiers, or other individuals. The labels refer to the pertinent category – "k" for king, "q" for queen, and "h" for household.

     For the reading of the Hurrian portion of the seal legends I am indebted to Alex Martin.

courtiers of Tupkish and Uqnitum
courtiers of Tar'am-Agade