J1 structures

Typology of the built environment in unit J1

Structures

September 2009 - Lorenzo Crescioli

Synopsis
Discussion

Synopsis

^wall1 The big stone revetment wall belonging to the ED III terrace complex, flanking the terrace and fronting the plaza v218
^wall2 Stone wall running in a easterly direction, bonded with ^wall3 and forming a sort of L shaped structure (^str1), possibly dating to Late Chalcolithic period or more probably to Ninevite 5. v438
^wall3 Stone wall running north to south, bonded with ^wall2 and forming a sort of L shaped structure (^str1), possibly dating to Late Chalcolithic period or more probably to Ninevite 5.. v438
^str1 Stone structure found at the base of the ED III revetment wall (^wall1) and possibly having the same function as part of an earlier (Late Chalcolithic or/and Ninevite 5) terrace complex. v438

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Discussion

     The main structures found in J1 during the first 5 seasons of excavation belong to different periods and two main different structures.

Walls and LC/Ninevite 5 stone structure

     (1)The most impressive and well known is the ED III revetment wall (^wall1), as part of the main terrace complex. The ED III Terrace Complex is constituted of the temple, the terrace itself, the glacis covering the terrace, the revetment wall, the escarpments linking terrace and plaza, and of course the monumental staircases. In J1 two of these elements have been excavated: the ED III revetment wall, exposed here for the first time, and the succession of the two escarpments (^esc1 and ^esc2). The J1 excavation, looking at the beginning for the base of ^wall1 and then for the surface of the plaza, allowed a better understanding of the link between terrace and plaza, showing the succession of revetment wall, escarpment and finally plaza.
     (2)The other important J1 stone structure is ^str1, formed by two bonded walls, ^wall2 and ^wall3, possibly dating to LC3, as shown by the pottery coming from the small sounding at the base of ^wall2, or to Ninevite 5 on the bases of stratigraphy relationships. This structure (^str1) seems having the same purpose of the later ED III structures. This is assumed mainly on the basis of the nature and the location of the structure itself, at the base of the ED III revetment wall. Moreover ^wall2, running almost parallel to ^wall1, matches almost exactly this later wall. Beside these clear evidences, there are many other stratigraphic elements, like the differences between accumulations to west and to east, the presence of early material to the north, below the level of the actual terrace and the correlations with the other excavation units as J5, J2 and J6 in primis, that allow us to safely assume the presence of an earlier mound, probably in form of a terrace, dating to LC or Ninevite 5, or used even during both periods.
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